Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is comparable to HIV in humans and is often found simultaneously occurring in cats with feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Similar to HIV, FIV is present in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and saliva. The most common transmission of the virus is through a cat fight or during pregnancy as an infected mother passes it to her offspring. In very rare cases, a cat may contract FIV through saliva. Feline immunodeficiency virus is a slowly progressing virus and cannot survive outside its host.
FIV is species-specific, meaning it cannot be acquired from another species, nor can it be passed to another species; it only occurs within cats. Male cats are almost twice as likely to acquire feline immunodeficiency virus, reflecting their propensity to roam as well as quarrel with other cats.
Common illnesses that may occur simultaneously:
Swollen lymph nodes.
Diagnosing and treating FIV
The veterinarian can diagnose feline immunodeficiency virus using a blood test that can detect specific antibodies within the bloodstream. Likely, a PCR test will be performed to confirm the diagnosis.
After a positive diagnosis is established, there is not much that can be done by means of treatment. Treatment is focused on keeping the cat indoors and away from other cats, preventing the pet from contracting secondary illness and acquiring any sort of infection. FIV-positive cats are capable of living somewhat normal lives when kept in good health and when FIV is detected in earlier stages.
Currently there is a non-core vaccine available for FIV; however, there is controversy surrounding the vaccine due to the fact that inoculated cats test positive with FIV because current FIV antibody tests cannot distinguish between the disease and the vaccination antibodies. This is when the PCR test will be performed. Be sure to inform your veterinarian if your cat has obtained the FIV vaccine.
If you have any questions about feline immunodeficiency virus or the FIV vaccine, please contact our office.